Borobudur Temple is the largest Buddhist temple in Indonesia, located in Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java.
Apart from being a place of worship for Buddhists, Borobudur Temple is also a tourist attraction in Indonesia.
This temple consists of six square terraces on which there are three circular courtyards whose walls are decorated with 1460 reliefs. The reliefs at Borobudur Temple not only describe the teachings of the Buddha’s life but also tell the life of the ancient Mataram era.
The reliefs on the walls of Borobudur Temple are divided into 4 main stories, namely Karmawibangga, Lalitawistara, Jataka and Awadana, and Gandawyuda.
Borobudur Temple is a Buddhist temple located in Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java.
This stupa-shaped temple was founded by Mahayana Buddhists around the 8th century AD during the reign of the Syailendra dynasty. Borobudur is the largest Buddhist temple or temple in the world.
It is generally said that the construction of the temple has the intention of glorifying a king who has passed away and has been reunited with the God from whom he came.
So the temple is at the same time a tangible expression of deep respect for the nobility of parents and pervasive awareness of the greatness of religion.
In this case, the Borobudur temple is a very interesting example, its shape as a terraced punden represents the characteristics of a building dedicated to the worship of ancestral spirits, and its structure is clarified by carvings depicting the Buddhist view of life.
History of Borobudur Temple
There is no written evidence that explains who built Borobudur and what it was used for.
The construction time is estimated based on a comparison between the type of script written on the closed foot of Karmawibhangga with the type of script commonly used in 8th and 9th-century royal inscriptions. It is estimated that Borobudur was built around 800 AD.
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This period corresponds to the period between 760 and 830 AD, the heyday of the Syailendra dynasty in Central Java, which at that time was influenced by the Srivijaya Empire.
The construction of Borobudur is estimated to take more than 75 – 100 years and was completed during King Samaratungga in 825.
Location of Borobudur Temple
Approximately 40 kilometers northwest of Yogyakarta and 86 kilometers west of Surakarta, Borobudur is located in an elevated area between two twin volcanoes, Sundoro-Sumbing and Merbabu-Merapi, and two rivers, the Progo and the Elo.
According to local myth, the area known as Kedu Plain is a Javanese “sacred” place and has been dubbed “the garden of Java” due to its high agricultural fertility.
During the restoration in the early 20th century, it was discovered that three Buddhist temples in the region, Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut, were positioned along a straight line.
Although the exact ritual process is unknown, a ritual relationship between the three temples must have existed.
Borobudur Temple Construction Stage
1. First stage:
Borobudur’s construction period is not known for sure (estimated between 750 and 850 AD). Borobudur was built on a natural hill, the top of the hill was leveled, and the flat courtyard was expanded.
Borobudur is not entirely made of andesite stone; the hillside is compacted and covered with a stone structure to resemble a shell that wraps around a hill of earth.
The rest of the hill is covered with stone structures layer by layer—an initially built-story apartment layout.
It looks like it was designed as a stepped pyramid but was later changed. As evidence, there is an arrangement that was dismantled. The first three steps were built to cover the original structure of the stepped pyramid.
2. Second stage:
The addition of two square steps, a railing, and a circular staircase above which a single, colossal stupa was built directly.
3. Third stage:
There was a change in design; the top of the circle with a single large main stupa was dismantled and replaced by three circular steps.
Smaller stupas were built in a circle on this terraced courtyard with a large main stupa in the middle.
For some reason, the foundation was widened, an additional leg was built, which encloses the original portion and at the same time covers the Karmawibhangga relief.
Archaeologists suspect that Borobudur was initially being designed in a single, enormous stupa crowning the stone terraces of a square.
However, this large stupa is too heavy, so the structure of the building tends to shift outward.
It should be remembered that the core of Borobudur is only a hill of the earth, so the pressure on the top will be spread to the outer side of the bottom so that Borobudur is threatened with landslides and collapses.
Therefore, it was decided to dismantle the single large main stupa and replace it with circular terraces decorated with rows of small stupas with only one main stupa.
To support the temple walls so that they don’t slide, an additional leg structure wraps the original leg.
This structure is a reinforcement and functions like a belt that binds so that the temple body does not collapse and collapses outward while hiding the Karmawibhangga relief on the Kamadhatu section.
4. Fourth stage:
There are minor changes such as improving the relief, adding the outermost fence, changing the stairs and arches over the gate, and widening the toe.
The History of Borobudur Temple Abandoned
Between 928 and 1006, King Mpu Sindok moved the royal capital of Medang to East Java after a series of volcanic eruptions.
It is not sure whether this factor caused Borobudur to be abandoned, but some sources suspect that it is possible that Borobudur began to be left during this period.
This sacred building was mentioned vaguely around 1365 by Mpu Prapanca in his Nagarakretagama manuscript written during the Majapahit kingdom. He said the existence of a “Vihara in Budur.”
In addition, Soekmono also put forward a widespread opinion that this temple began to be wholly abandoned since the local population converted to Islam in the 15th century.
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This monument has not been wholly forgotten; through folk tales, Borobudur goes from being a testament to past glory to a more superstitious tale associated with misfortune, misfortune, and suffering.
Two Javanese chronicles were written in the 18th century mention the bad luck associated with this monument.
According to the Babad Tanah Jawi (Javanese History), this monument was a fatal factor for Mas Dana, a dissident who rebelled against Pakubuwono I, king of the Mataram Sultanate, in 1709.
It is said that the hill “Redi Borobudur” was besieged, and the rebels were defeated and executed by the king. This monument is associated with bad luck in the Babad Mataram (History of the Mataram Kingdom).
Prince Monconagoro, the crown prince of the Yogyakarta Sultanate who visited this monument in 1757.
In Javanese belief during the Islamic Mataram period, the ruins of the temple buildings were considered the abode of spirits. They were deemed to be wingit (haunted), so that it was associated with bad luck or misfortune that might befall anyone who visited and disturbed this site.
Although scientifically suspected, perhaps after this site was neglected and covered with shrubs, this place was once a hotbed of disease outbreaks such as dengue fever or malaria.
The History of the Rediscovery of the Borobudur Temple
Nine more centuries of the Borobudur temple is shrouded in darkness and poses a puzzle for its admirers.
It was only in 1814 that the Borobudur temple reappeared in the historical treasures of the Indonesian nation.
At that time, the Governor of the British colonial government in Indonesia, Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles, who was visiting Semarang, received a report about a large number of finds of carved stones on a hill that belonged to the village of Bumisegoro, Residency of Magelang.
The hill, which contains many carved stones, is believed by local residents to be the remains of a temple building called budur.
After receiving the report, Raffles then ordered his assistant, Cornelius, to conduct research.
Cornelius is an experienced person in handling temples in Indonesia. In 1814 Cornelius immediately visited and researched the Borobudur temple.
What Cornelius saw at that time was a hill overgrown with shady trees and thick shrubs.
In between the grove of trees, carved stones, loose statues, and even temple stones are still neatly arranged, which are part of a building.
Cornelius carried out a massive clean-up by deploying a workforce of no less than 200 people.
The cleaning work carried out by Cornelius was also carried out in 1817, 1825, and 1835.
After that, the Borobudur temple looked back as a whole. The thorough cleaning work was at the initiative of Hartman, who since 1832 had served as Resident of Kedu.
Rescue efforts in discovering the Borobudur temple were immediately carried out by the colonial government, private parties, and admirers of ancient relics.
At that time, the efforts made were still limited to creating reports, reporting, taking photos, depicting, researching, and publishing.
Borobudur Temple Restoration History
To preserve the Borobudur temple from the danger of destruction and as a historical relic, the government took action to repair and restore it.
The restoration of this building has been carried out twice, the first by Th. Van Erp from 1907 to 1911.
The Government of Indonesia carried out the second stage of restoration with the assistance of UNESCO from 1973 to 1983. The two phases of restoration had unique characteristics.
The first restoration is still traditional, using simple equipment and materials.
Meanwhile, the second phase of the restoration has implemented modern technology, both in material equipment and its application.
The application of modern technology to ancient buildings has only been carried out for the first time at the Borobudur temple, while the restoration of other old buildings in Indonesia still uses the traditional system.
In August 1907, Th. Van Erp began to restore the Borobudur temple following the tasks given by the Borobudur Temple Restoration Committee.
For seven months, loose stones scattered around the courtyard and on top of the temple buildings are collected and cleaned.
Through this activity, it is hoped that an overview of the building structure that is still intact and the parts that need to be completed and repaired can be obtained.
The results of the cleaning and collection added to the confidence of Th. Van Erp that there is still a lot of work to be done, not only collecting loose stones but also testing and reassembling.
The incomplete balustrade stones are perfected. The broken relief stones were reassembled in their original places.
Waterways or jaladwara are cleaned and repaired. The stones of the gate have been reassembled, and there is still much work to be done on the temple’s feet, Batur and courtyard.
The work on the upper part was carried out, among others: the round stones and the collapsed stupa were dismantled, then rearranged until they looked intact.
The stones of the main stupa are equipped to the top and the railing that limits the upper-level courtyard, replaced with new stones.
Access to Borobudur Temple
From Yogyakarta to Borobudur temple, the distance is about 42 km, if using public transportation (the easiest way is to go from Giwangan terminal or Jombor terminal) so it is advisable to go to one of the two terminals.
Then take a bus bound for Yogyakarta-Borobudur (approximately Rp. 10,000). If using a private vehicle from Yogyakarta via Jalan Magelang, then follow the directions. Another alternative is to use a car rental service.
Ethics at Borobudur Temple
To maintain the sacredness of the Borobudur temple, a new rule is applied. The regulations require all visitors to Borobudur temple to wear batik sarongs and rubber-soled sandals, especially for those who wear short shorts or mini skirts.
The rules that apply to both foreign and domestic tourists are rubber-soled sandals to keep the temple stones from wearing out due to friction.
The temple management promotes various programs to increase tourist visits. The party promoting this program is PT Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur and Ratu Boko (PT TWCBPRB).
The aim is that because the temple is a place of worship, politeness must be maintained as a visitor. Be reasonable and don’t do anything that violates ethical behavior, such as destroying the temple area, crossing out the temple, climbing the temple, and so on.
Entrance Ticket to Borobudur Temple
If you plan to enjoy your vacation by visiting Borobudur Temple tours, it is important to know the current entry ticket information.
In general, the rates for domestic tourists per person at the Borobudur Temple Tourism Park are as follows:
Age 10 and over: IDR 50,000
Ages 3 to 10 years: IDR 25,000. Including insurance premium IDR 500 per person
In addition, there are also ticket rates with the Canal Package. With the Canal Package, you will visit Borobudur Temple and other temple complexes, namely Prambanan and Ratu Boko.
Here are the ticket fare details:
Borobudur – Prambanan
Age 10 and over: IDR 75,000
Age 3 to 10 years: IDR 35,000
Borobudur– Ratu Boko
Age 10 and over: IDR 75,000
Age 3 to 10 years: IDR 35,000
Hotels around Borobudur Temple
Manohara Hotel Borobudur Temple
Manohara Hotel is located at Jl. Badrawati Borobudur Temple Tourism Park Complex, Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia, 565553
They are supported by a beautiful natural atmosphere, with the Menoreh cliffs standing proudly behind and the Kedu plains that spoil the eye. Visitors can also enjoy the beauty of the four mountains surrounding the Borobudur Temple Tourism Park Area, Mount Sumbing and Sindoro in the west, and Mount Merbabu and Merapi in the east.
Manohara combines modern and traditional concepts for its building design. There are two rooms located in different locations but still within the Borobudur Temple Tourism Park Complex.
With facilities of 5 rooms at Manohara Std Double Bed and five cottages at Bukit Dagi Abhinaya, make your stay more memorable
Manohara Hotel Public Facilities
Coffee/tea in the lobby
Wifi in common areas
Check-in and Check-out Time
Check-in: 14:00 – 22:00
Check-out: 06:00 – 12:00
Borobudur Temple: Amata Borobudur Resort
One of the comfortable inns that still has a rustic feel is Amata Borobudur Resort. One of the best resorts is located close to Borobudur Temple Tourist Attractions.
The rate of staying at Amata Borobudur Resort is still affordable in its class. Rates for staying overnight at this resort start from one million rupiahs per night.
Amata Borobudur Resort is suitable for those who want to explore tourist attractions in Magelang. Because of its strategic location, you can quickly get to interesting tourist attractions in Magelang.
Amata Borobudur Resort Room Type
1. Deluxe Bungalow Room
Deluxe Bungalow room type has an area of 35m2 with single or double bed type. This room is suitable for those of you who are traveling alone. The facilities of this room are also quite adequate with a bathtub, shower, cable TV, air conditioning and there is also a terrace/balcony.
2. Luxury Bungalow Room
The Luxury Bungalow room type has an area of 42m2 with a double bed type. This room is suitable for those who travel with their small family. The facilities of this room include a Bathtub, Shower, Cable TV, AC.
3. Family Bungalow Room
As the name implies, this room is suitable for those of you who want to stay in a fairly spacious room because the area of this room reaches 100m2 with Double Bed or Twin Bed types.
All room types at Amata Borobudur Resort are smoke-free, so they are safe for family health. In addition to the facilities in the room, Amata Borobudur Resort also has other facilities such as wifi, Adult Swimming Pool, Children’s Pool, Garden, Spa, and Restaurant.
Location of Amata Borobudur Resort
Amata Borobudur Resort is located 16 km from the city center, precisely on Jl. Mendut Sendangsono, Progowati, Magelang, Central Java. This location is near Borobudur Temple.
Hotel Sentiong Asri
Vacationing at Borobudur Temple is even easier at Senthong Asri Hotel & Restaurant. With a reasonably close distance and pleasant facilities, it is enough to make visitors feel at home and happy.
It can be visited at Jalan Balaputradewa No.22, Magelang 56553 Indonesia.
Check-in and Check-out Time
Check-in: From 14:00
Check-out: Before 12:00